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    (. . ͳ, . . , , . , I. O. Malley, A. U. Chamot, R. L. Oxford, E. Rod, P. Skehan, I. Tudor .). , , , , . .

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    . . , (Production strategies i Communication strategies) (Learning strategies). . , : , , , - (Willing 1987); , , (Reid 1987); , (Lowes, Target 1998); , -, 㳿 (O'Malley, Chamot 1990), (, , ) (, , ) 㳿 (Oxford 1990) . , :

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    1. Read the saying and say what you think about it. Learning how to learn is the element that is always of value now and in future.

    2. Language learning is no different from any other kind of learning. There are four stages in this process.

    The learning cycle

    Stage 1

    Having an experience

    Stage 4Stage 2

    Planning and trying againLooking at the experience

    Stage 3

    Drawing conclusions from the experience

    Try to find out how you like to learn English. Fill the chart and be ready to report on you favourite and unfavouriteactivities in English.

    How do you feel about these activities? Tick 4 column 1, 2 or 3.

    I like this activity

    1 very much

    2 OK

    3 not at all

    listening to cassettes

    making lists of vocabulary

    playing games

    asking questions

    doing exercises

    learning a dialogue

    listening to songs

    making posters

    singing songs

    doing a project

    speaking in pairs

    talking about pictures

    reading texts in the coursebook

    doing pronunciation exercises

    working alone

    doing a quiz

    writing sentences

    watching videos

    working in big group

    doing role plays

    Is there anything else that you like to do?

    , , (Ellis 1994: 484). .

    3. You know, there no right or wrong ways of learning - only the one that works for you perfectly. Try different way of learning and choose the most suitable ones for you.

    And now work with yoru deskmate and try to find out what kind of learner you are. These question will help you.

    Do you think you are good at learning languages?

    Why or why not?

    What do you think is the best way to learn a new language? Why?

    What kind of activities do you think should be included in your course? Why?

    There is a recording of foreign students answering the same questions. Listen to the interview and say if you feel the same way as any of the recorded learners and why.

    ) b).

    - .

    ) , . - , - .

    (accuracy) - , . , , ( ). (fluency) , , .

    4.

    With you deskmate deside on the question c). This card will be helpful for you.

    How many different kinds of activity do use in your classes in an average week? Tick all those listed that you used in the last week.

    pairwork

    groupwork

    describing pictures

    to a story

    learning the dialogue

    grammar exercises a quiz

    a game

    role play

    listening to a song

    asking questions in pairs

    mingle

    watching a video

    using dictionaries

    working out the rules

    brainstorming ideas

    discussing ideas

    making lists

    choral repetition

    free writing

    physical response

    to instraction

    5. Discuss your ideas with the rest of your class.

    .

    Do you have a positive attitude?

    Tick 4the sentence if it is true. Put a cross 8if it is not true. If you don't know, put a?.

    I am usually very active in class.

    English is a difficult language.

    It is important to study at home.

    I like to think about the rules of English.

    English spelling is crazy.

    I like to use my imagination.

    I can't understand English grammar. It is too complicated.

    I can learn from my mistakes.

    I am good at English.

    I enjoy learning English.

    I don't want to speak in English. I feel shy.

    If i don't understand, I ask the teacher or another student.

    Score

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10

    11

    12

    3

    3

    0

    3

    3

    0

    3

    0

    3

    3

    2

    0

    3

    8

    0

    2

    0

    0

    2

    0

    2

    0

    0

    0

    2

    0

    ?

    1

    0

    0

    0

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    0

    1

    0

    20 - 31 You are very positive about learning English. Well done!

    10 - 20 Not bad! Try to be more positive - it will help you learn better. Remember to be active in class. Don't be afraid to speak. You can learn from your mistakes.

    0 - 10 You feel a bit negative about learning English. Why? Try to find something you like about English, and practise that. You can be good, you just need time and practise.

    6. Find out what kind of attitude towards studying English you have and report what kind of activities would be useful to you as a learner.

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    1. Here is information about different learning styles and try to deside which of them suit you most of all. There can be not the only one.

    Individual learning styles have been categorised in various ways. The classification below represent some of these ways, and we can see how learning styles link with activities.

    Sensory preference

    Visual learners

    These learners learn best when they can see things:

    they like to have things wtitten down

    they respond well to pictures

    they like using books and taking notes.

    Auditory learners

    These learners find it easier to learn when they hear explanations:

    they enjoy listening to tapes or to the teacher.

    they like making tape recordings of what they are learning.

    Physical or kinaesthetic learners

    These learners need to be actively involved in doing a task in order to learn easily:

    they often like to move around and find it boring to sit still

    they will probably enjoy role plays or handling physical objects.

    they like a variety of classroom activity and actively participate in them.

    Concrete/Abstract

    Concrete learners

    These learners like hands-on, practical activity:

    they will learn something if it has a purpose

    they enjoy games, simulations and role plays and are experimental by nature.

    Abstract learners

    These learners are happy with theory and may be good at thinking rationally and logically:

    they enjoy ideas and learn well through books

    they may be good at reading and writing and less inclined to more practical exercises.

    Sequential/Random

    Sequential learners

    These learners are good at classifying and arranging knowledhe:

    they may be very analytical, industrious and reliable.

    Random learners

    These learners tend to be more imaginative and intuitive:

    they may come up with original ways of looking at things and new ideas.

    Of course, any individual will have a mixture og chsrscteristics: it is very unusual for anyone to be a pure example of one learning style. Often people who learn best use a mixture of learning styles. You should try learning in different ways by practising lots of different activities in English class. You might find a better way to learn.

    2.

    1. To check your understanding of the different learning styles and their implications, try to match the style with the kind of activity these learners typically enjoy or find easy.

    Learning style

    Visual

    Auditory

    Kinaesthetic

    Concrete

    Abstract

    Sequential

    Random

    Preferred activity

    listening to tapes

    classifying and ordering

    reading

    brainstorming ideas

    simulations and role play

    watching films and looking at pictures

    discovery learning

    2. Match each to an individual student in your classes.

    . , . , ⳳ . ³ , , , . (. 11-14).

    3 a) Try the following quiz. Calculate your score and report on your learning style.

    Remember that all stiles may be sometimes successful.

    b) Discuss with your classmates the "results" and their possible implications for learning.

    Hometask: Look through the recomendations as for your learning style. Make the list of activities useful for you.

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    4. For effective studying, it is a good idea to think about what you need or what English for. You could analyse your needs like this

    a) listen to the interview of foreign students studying English. Do you have the same needs as anyone of them?

    ( ).

    b) decide on your main purpose for learning English e. g. for future work or study.

    c) make a list of the specific situations where you need to use English e. g. speaking on the telephone, answering enquiries, giving information, writing business letters, reporting on the conference, telling anecdotes.

    decide which skills you need for each situation: extending vocabulary, dealing with grammar, listening, speaking, reading or writing.

    You should then have a better idea about ahich skills you need to work on and be able to establish your priorities.

    Here is an example of how one learner analysed his needs. Stig is the Swedish Youth Hostel warden who needs English for his work. He filled in the following chart. Here is a blank chart, which you could use to analyse your own needs.

    Situations

    Skills

    Vocabulary

    (3)

    Grammar

    (3)

    Listening

    (3)

    Speaking

    (3)

    Reading

    (3)

    Writing

    (3)

    Youth Hostel

    Reception desk

    welcoming new guests

    giving yh information

    explaining regulations

    answering enquiries

    putting up notices

    3

    3

    3

    3

    3

    3

    3

    3

    3

    3

    3

    3

    3

    Situations

    Skills

    Vocabulary

    (3)

    Grammar

    (3)

    Listening

    (3)

    Speaking

    (3)

    Reading

    (3)

    Writing

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    5. Prioritising your needs.

    How much do you know/can you do already?

    Stig used an assessment scale from 1 to 5:

    5 = this is the standard I would like to reach - my goal.

    1 = I can do very little. I am a long way from my goal.

    He considered each skill that he needed and circled the number that he felt represented his position on the scale, as follows:

    Dealing with grammar

    Listening

    Speaking

    Reading

    Writing

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    He was then able to see more clearly what he needed to improve most. Drow a blank self-assessment scale for your own use.

    What are your priorities?

    Stig then gave each skill a priority rating from 1 to 6:

    1 = highest priority

    6 = lowest priority

    I thought I needed to improve my speking, but now I realise that it is mainly vocabulary that is missing. My speaking is quite good, in fact. I also realise that I need to concentrate on my listening and

    writing. I can read English quite well - I don't need to do it much, anyway.

    Skill

    Priority rating

    Extending vocabulary

    1

    Dealing with grammar

    4

    Listening

    2

    Speaking

    5

    Reading

    6

    Writing

    3

    You could prioritise your own needs in the same way. If you do this, it will give you a clearer idea about which skills to concentrate on.

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    7. How to draw up a contract.

    It's very useful and important when a teacher and learners know their duties, responsibilities and probably penalties. For that purpose let's draw up our contract. Work in group and make list of what the teacher is responsible for.

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    Work in groups and think about the things you are responsible for.

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    Hometask: look through the two lists of responsibilities and think about them again. Maybe you'll find something to add.

    , ( ) '. , ' , 볿 . . (. 15).

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