• Адміністративне право
  • Арбітражний процес
  • Архітектура
  • Астрологія
  • Астрономія
  • Банківська справа
  • Безпека життєдіяльності
  • Біографії
  • Біологія
  • Біологія і хімія
  • Ботаніка та сільське гос-во
  • Бухгалтерський облік і аудит
  • Валютні відносини
  • Ветеринарія
  • Військова кафедра
  • Географія
  • Геодезія
  • Геологія
  • Етика
  • Держава і право
  • Цивільне право і процес
  • Діловодство
  • Гроші та кредит
  • Природничі науки
  • Журналістика
  • Екологія
  • Видавнича справа та поліграфія
  • Інвестиції
  • Іноземна мова
  • Інформатика
  • Інформатика, програмування
  • Історичні особистості
  • Історія
  • Історія техніки
  • Кибернетика
  • Комунікації і зв'язок
  • Комп'ютерні науки
  • Косметологія
  • Короткий зміст творів
  • Криміналістика
  • Кримінологія
  • Криптология
  • Кулінарія
  • Культура і мистецтво
  • Культурологія
  • Російська література
  • Література і російська мова
  • Логіка
  • Логістика
  • Маркетинг
  • Математика
  • Медицина, здоров'я
  • Медичні науки
  • Міжнародне публічне право
  • Міжнародне приватне право
  • Міжнародні відносини
  • Менеджмент
  • Металургія
  • Москвоведение
  • Мовознавство
  • Музика
  • Муніципальне право
  • Податки, оподаткування
    Бесплатные рефераты






    Culture of Kazakhstan



    Kazakh Yurt

    A YURTAIS transportable collapsible dwelling that came to us from ancienttimes.

    It consists of wooden framework, covered with felt. The framework
    ( "kerege") forms walls of the dwelling made of latticed wooden poles;
    "uyuk" - long wooden poles serve as a cover for the upper spherical portionof the yurt; "shanrak" is the top most open part of the yurt, serving as anoutlet for the smoke raising from the hearth, for purposes of ventilationand scanty lighting of the yurt's interior. Depending on the airtemperature the yurt is covered with two if not more layers of felt. Theoutermost layer is coated with flat for it to be impenetrable for rain orsnow.
    The yurt's area ranges from 6-7 m. to 30-40 m. Spherical form makes it anexceedingly heat-consuming dwelling. They would enter the yurt throughfolding carved doors made of pine or birch-tree. They were a sort oftouchstone testifying to aesthetic taste, social status and well being ofits master. In real fact, fretwork motifs reflected Kazakhstan's flora andfauna.
    Right in the center of the yurt one finds a hearth with a cauldron
    ( "kazan") suspended there above. The place at the hearth is regarded asthat of honor meant for particularly respectable, distinguished guests.
    The main decoration of the yurt is no doubt carpets ( "tekemets") mademostly of felt.

    Besides the interior looks quite bright owing to a multitude of colorfulcarpet-strips and ribbons manufactured of wool (by filling), of felt (by in -laying), of such other materials by weaving, embroidery, wicker-work andall.
    Every little corner in the yurt has a purpose of its own - a part for men,a respective portion of the area - for women, for clothes. Besides there isenough room for a "shop" where they repair harness, accomplish other works,room for preparing meals, for bed, for horse's gear, for children, for theson and the daughter-in-law.
    Simplicity and feasibility of manufacture, easy and quick assembly, use ofnatural materials and high transportability turned yurt into an idealdwelling of a nomad. Even now you may encounter a yurt in the steppe.

    Kazakh National Games

    KYZ KUU ( "Overtake the girl") - young boys and girls are participants inthis game. The girl on the horse does her best to gallop from the young manbut as soon as the latter tries to overtake (approach) her she lashes himwith a whip. If - up to a certain place - the young boy fails to overtakeher she would "reward" him with whipping again. If he is a success he earnsa kiss.

    AUDARYSPAK ( "Wrestling on horseback") - this kind of national sportsrequires skills both in hand-to-hand fighting and in trick riding. In facttwo men fight while on horseback. Wins the one that brings his adversarydown of his horse.
    KUMIS ALU ( "Pick up the coin"). The essence of the game is that whilegalloping at full speed a young man should pick up a silver ingot off theground - such had been condition of the game in old days. Nowadays ahandkerchief replaces the ingot. This contest particularly impressed
    Alexander the Great when he visited Central Asia. According to historians 'evidence on watching kumis alu he exclaimed "That's a sort of trainingworthy of a warrior on horseback ".
    KOKPAR ( "Fighting for a goat's carcass"). A most popular game. It stemsfrom an ancient custom according to which one, who wants to get rid of allevil, should sacrifice a goat. Not infrequently taking part in the game isup to 1,000 horsemen. The game unfolds on an almost infinite steppe range.
    On the opposite ends of an immense field they arrange goals of teams --adversaries. It is into them that the symbolic carcass of the goat shouldbe thrown, while the throw proper is preceded by a desperate flight betweenthe teams to get hold of the carcass.

    Traditional Holidays and Entertainments

    NAURYZ - a holiday of spring, it is the most momentous and ancientfestivity of Oriental nations.
    In fact, it is a New Year's eve according to the ancient Oriental calendar.
    It has yet another name "Ulys Kuni" ( "The first day of the New Year") or
    "Ulystyn uly kuni" ( «The great day of the people").
    They say that the more you are in celebrating the Nauryz holiday, thegreater success will attend you throughout the year. Hence abundance offestive rites and attributes.
    When the holiday comes, Kazakhs would put on festive clothes, pay visits toeach other, exchange congratulations, best wishes of well-being and goodluck in the coming year.
    Universal merry-making, games, traditional horse races, and variousamusements accompany festivities.
    Traditionally they cook and roast and make all sorts of tasty meals duringthe holidays, for they should symbolize well-being and abundance in thecoming year. The feast is usually timed to the noon; it is preceded andfollowed by a prayer in honor of the forefathers read by the mullah. Inconclusion the eldest of those present gives his blessings (bata) so thatyear in year out prosperity be part and parcel of the family.
    When Kazakhs celebrate Nauryz, presence of the figure of "7" isindispensable - it embodies 7 days of the week - time units of universaleternity: in front of aksakals ( "white beards» or old men) they would put 7bowls with the drink of "Nauryz-kozhe", prepared of 7 grades of 7 types ofcereals.
    BERKUTCHI - hunting with a golden eagle.
    A tradition that has already been practiced for ten centuries.
    They say that presenting a youngster with a fledgling of a hunting bird istantamount to wishing him to be brave and strong young fellow.
    Virtually training of a golden eagle is a rare and painstaking art. Thebird just caught is being slowly trained to its master (a berkutchi). Forthe purpose the man doesn't get a wink of sleep for several nights with thebird being subjected to similar discomfort. The bird must take food (piecesof raw meat) from its master's hand only. When the eagles has got used tothe hunter, its horse and its dog, it undergoes training: first it "hunts"stuffed foxes and only then proceeds with real hunting.


    Kazakh dastarkhan has a long story of its own, its own traditions, and itsspecifics inherent to Kazakh nation only, known for a quite particularmanner of receiving and serving guests.
    The part tea plays in the Kazakh dastarkhan is altogether remarkable. Infact any Kazakh feast invariably starts with a minutely itemized process oftea drinking. The host welcomes his guests, invites them to the table.
    Incidentally, it is only up to girls and young women to pour the tea. Andthey do this wonderfully though it is far from easy. For one should see toit that the guests 'drinking bowls be always full, there must be noconfusing them, there must be no tea leafs remains on the edge of thebowls. Even if the guest gives to understand that he has already quenchedhis thirst he must not be left unattended - the hostess must offer him a so -called "sui-ayak" - a tea bowl of honor. Tea is normally accompanied withcream, butter, jam, dried and fresh fruit, nuts, cakes, other sweetmeats.
    Tea is but an introduction, an invitation to a capital meal - a festivefeast.

    First they serve all sorts of appetizers, mostly meat ones - prepared ofhorse flesh and mutton. They are quite plentiful and their diversity isjust as great, all made of smoked, semi-smoked and boiled meat. Addedthereto are flat cakes and such milk tonics as koumyss, shubat and katyk ...
    They are followed with vegetable titbits with invariable flat cakes. Nextthe guests are treated with a kuyrdak - hot rich roast meat prepared ofmutton by - products mostly of liver, kidneys, heart, lungs and tail's fat.

    After a small break the guests are treated with all sorts of patties:
    "samsa" - with meat, "puktermet" - with by-products, "belyashes", "kausyrma"and all ...
    Finally there comes the capital treat - besbarmak. First they cover a largeround or oval dish with small round flat pieces of boiled paste followed bysmall bars of boiled horse-meat or mutton, then comes onion cut in ringsand scalded with hot broth, all this strewn with a green mixture of fennel,parsley and kinza ...
    The most honored guest is usually offered a koy-bas (a boiled sheep'shead). The guest is to dress it and distribute among the other participantsto the dastarkhan. One should mind that each part of the head is attachedparticular significance and meaning: young men are treated with ears forthem to be attentive, girls - with a palate (it is believed that this wouldmake them more diligent). The head having been divided the host proceedswith cutting meat on the main dish and shares it with his guests.
    Here too one has to mind certain habits and superstitions. For instance,hipbones and crust are offered to most honored guests while the breastbonegoes to the son-in-law or daughter-in-law, cervical vertebra - to marrieswomen, pregnant ones first and foremost.
    Certain bans are also to be observed. Thus even the most honored guest maynot be treated with a "koy-bas" if his father is present at the table.
    Children may not be offered brains (they might become weak-willed), just asan elbow bone - to a young girl (she might be "left on the shelf ")...< br>The meat is usually accomplished with flat cakes with onion (ak nan). Arich broth (sorpa) is poured in separate bowls.

    However in many areas of Kazakhstan besbarmak on the dastarkhan is replacedwith "kespe", Kazakh noodle soup: in a drinking bowl or a soup-plate theyput warmed up noodles and pour tuzdyk on them, a gravy consisting of meat,black radish, sweet pepper, onions, tomatoes and green kinza.

    The feast is finalized with a dessert abounding in all sorts of sweetmeats.

    Kazakh National University named al-Farabi

    Faculty of economics and business

    The paper:

    «Culture of Kazakhstan».

    Done by: student of 1 course

    BU IA 02r2

    Safronova Olga

    Checked by: Serikbaeva SZ

    Almaty, 2003.

    Реферат Банк
    Бесплатные рефераты







      Все права защищены. Reff.net.ua - українські реферати !